computer motherboard

Computer Motherboard And Its Components


Computer Motherboard And Its Components

The computer motherboard connects all the parts(components) of a computer together.
Mainboard, baseboard, mobo (abbreviation), system board,  MB (abbreviation), logic board are the synonyms of computer’s motherboard .
The motherboard is the most important component in the PC. All the component such as RAM stick, hard disk drive, optical drives, processor, processor fan and external card are plugin into motherboard.
Computer motherboard is single platform to connect all of the parts (components) of a computer together,Hence it considered as the backbone of a computer.

Some of popular manufacturers of the motherboard.
Intel
ASUS
AOpen
ABIT
Biostar
Gigabyte
MSI

The motherboard may be characterized by the

i) form factor
ii) chipset
iii) type of processor socket used

i) Form factor refers to the motherboard’s geometry, dimensions, arrangement and electrical
requirements. Advanced Technology Extended (ATX) is the most common design of motherboard for desktop computers.

ii) Chipset is a circuit, which is used to controls the of resources such as the bus interface with the processor, cache memory and RAM, expansion
cards, etc. It used to coordinate data transfers between the various components of the computer.

iii) The processor socket is a connector into which the processor is mounted. The Basic Input Output System (BIOS) and Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) are present on the motherboard.

Components of Motherboard

The important components of a Motherboard are given below:

computer motherboard

 

1. Mouse & keyboard : 
There are two types of keyboard and mouse  connectors.First type is called PS/2 and second one is called USB.

computer motherboard

2. USB (Universal serial bus) :
USB is Universal serial bus. It is used for connection for PC. There are  different devices which is used to connect with USB port such as mouse, keyboards, scanners, cameras, and even printers.USB connector is used to connect computer motherboard and a peripheral device. You can insert or remove peripheral device connect by USB connector without restarting your system.

3. Parallel port  :
Most of old  printers are used to connect by  parallel port. Parallel port used more than one wire for sending or receiving multiple bits of data at once, while serial port uses only one wire. Parallel ports use a 25-pin female DB connector.

4. CPU Chip  :
CPU refers to a processor, the central processing unit, also called the microprocessor performs all the task that take place inside a computer system.It is also know as brain of computer.

5. RAM slots :
RAM slots is for attaching RAM on it in general desktop we can see two slot of RAM but in server motherboard we can see 4+ slot of RAM.RAM comes in different size(memory).

6. Floppy controller :
In old motherboard the floppy drive connects to the computer via a 34-pin ribbon cable, one end of ribbon cable is connect to floppy drive and other is connected to the motherboard.

7. IDE controller :
IDE that is Integrated Drive Electronics,also called as ATA or Parallel ATA (PATA).IDE controller is responsible for controlling the hard drive. Today’s computers no longer come with a IDE controller.

8. PCI slot :
PCI stands for Peripheral Component Interface, PCI slot allows you to insert expansion cards into your computer. PCI used to connect additional PCI device like network cards, sound cards,modems,video cards.Some of today’s computers no longer come with a PCI expansion slot.Its connect audio, video and graphics.

9. ISA slot : 
ISA stands for Industry Standard Architecture, It is the standard architecture of the Expansion bus.Its connect modem and input devices.

10. CMOS Battery :
CMOS is complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor is used to store BIOS setting in computer motherboard. CMOS Battery also store date and time.

11. AGP slot :
The Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP) is a high-speed point-to-point channel for attaching a video card to a computer system, If you have a modern motherboard, you will almost certainly notice a single connector that looks like a PCI slot.A fast port for a graphics card

12. CPU slot :
The processor socket (also called a CPU socket) is the connector on the motherboard that connect a CPU.

13. Power supply plug in :
The Power supply provides the necessary electrical power to make the computer system operate. The power supply takes standard 110-V AC power and converts into  +/-12-Volt, +/-5-Volt, and 3.3-Volt DC power.
The power supply connector has 20-pins, and the connector can go in only one direction.

computer motherboard

Connector Side of Motherboard

 

computer motherboard

 

 component of motherboard Keyboard port Keyboard & Mouse : This Port is used to connect keyboard and mouse , now a day we use USB connector for keyboard and mouse
 component of motherboard serial port Serial or COM :  It used to connect some types of modem, scanner, or digital camera
 component of motherboard parallel Port  Parallel or Printer : You plug your printer into the parallel, or printer, port. But now printers may use a USB port
 component of motherboard USB port USB : Designed to replace older Serial and Parallel ports, the USB (Universal Serial Bus) can connect computers with a number of devices, such as printers, keyboards, mice, scanners, digital cameras, PDAs, and more
 component of motherboard monitor Port Video or Monitor : It used to connect your monitor into the video port
 component of motherboard Line Out Line Out : It used to connect speakers or headphone into the Line Out jack 
 component of motherboard line IN Line In : The Line In jack allows you to listen to your computer using a stereo system
 component of motherboard microphone port Microphone : It used to connect a microphone into this jack to record sounds on your computer
 component of motherboard JoyStick Joystick or Game : If you have a joystick, musical (MIDI) keyboard, or other gaming device, this is where you plug it in
 component of motherboard Phone or Modem port Phone or Modem : The phone or modem jack is where you plug your computer into a phone line
 component of motherboard LAN port Network or Ethernet : You can connect your computer to a network by plugging in an Ethernet cable in this port
 component of motherboard Printer Port SCSI : It used to connect a hard drive, CD-ROM drive, or other device to a computer

Below Diagram show component of motherboard

Here we are using Asus H110M-cs motherboard

components of motherboard

(1)  TPM connector (14-1 pin TPM)

components of motherboard TPM

(2 ) ATX power connector    (3) CPU socket    (4) CPU and chassis fan connector   (5) DDR4 DIMM slots   (6) Serial ATA connector

(7) System Front panel connector

motherboard front panel connector

(8) Chassis instrusion head   (9) Speaker Connector   (10) PCI Express  (11) Clear RTC RAM  (12) Front panel audio connector  (13) Serial port connector  (14) PCI Express slots  (15) LPT connector  (16) USB 3.0 connector  (17) USB 2.0 connector

Installing components of motherboard

Installing component of motherboard

Step 1 ) Install CPU

 

Installing CPU

 

Step 2 ) Installing CPU Fan

 

 Installing CPU Fan

 

Step 3 ) Install RAM

Install RAM

 

Step 4 ) Install SATA devices

Step 5 ) Install Expansion cards

Step 6 ) Install system panel connector

Step 7 ) Install ATX power connector

Install ATX power connector

Step 8 ) Connecting input/output devices

Step 9 ) Power On the system and install Operating System


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