IP or Internet Protocol address is a unique address given to each device in an network that use internet protocol for communication in network.
Now IP address is of two type IPv4 and IPv6
IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) OR IP is widely used all over the world. IPv4 has 32 bits address. The 32 bits address are further split into 4 bytes ( 192.168.1.25) and each byte is separated by a dot(.). So it is of this form,number is 0-255 decimal.
IP4 Address Classes
The address classes divide the address space into addresses that support:
Large numbers of nodes – Intended for a large organisation – Class A addresses
Medium number of nodes- Class B addresses
Small number of nodes- Intended for a small organisation –Class C addresses
|Class||Range of Net Numbers||Range of Host Numbers|
|A||0 to 126||0.0.1 to 255.255.254|
|B||128.0 to 191.255||0.1 to 255.254|
|C||192.0.0 to 254.255.255||1 to 254|
127.0.0.1 is commonly known as the loopback address, and is used for testing the local IP address stack.
127.0.0.0 network is reserved, hence we can use any address in that range e.g. 127.0.0.3 .
When device does not get any IP ( may be from DHCP server or Static IP ) then a range of IP 169.254.0.0 to 169.254.255.255 is assign to it , this IP is called ad APIPA (Automatic Private IP Addressing).
Private and Special Addresses
Certain IP addresses are not routable on the Internet and are reserved for Internal networks, they are known as private addresses:
10.0.0.0 –Class A address
172.16.0.0 through to 172.31.0.0 – 16 contiguous class B networks
192.168.0.0 through to 192.168.255.0 –256 contiguous class C networks
To identify the range of the class a bit called parity bit is used
Priority bit is the leftmost bit in the first octet
Class Priority bit
A – 0
B – 10
C – 110
D – 1110
E – 1111
NetID define total number of network
Host ID define number of host/ network
Network address all the bit of host id should be 0
Broadcast address all the bit of host should be 1
Subnetting is a method which is used to divide any network into many smaller subnetworks by using subnetting , we can save any IP range to distribute other client.
Class-less Inter Domain Routing (CIDR) it is a method by which we can solve the limitation of classful addressing.
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) this is latest version of the Internet Protocol (IP).
IPv6 128 bit address is divided into 16 bit boundaries and each 16 bit block is converted to a four digit hexadecimal number and separated by : (colon) hexa notation.
An example of an IPv6 address is: 2001:0db8:85a3:0000:0000:8a2e:0370:7334.
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