microprocessor

Microprocessor


Microprocessor

microprocessor (or processor) also called as brain of computer system. It is an electronic component which controls the working of all the hardware and software. A processor responsible for performing arithmetical, input/output (I/O), logical and other basic instructions . It perform execution of  software commands and performs calculation functions.

Block Diagram of a Basic Microprocessor

microprocessor

Basically microprocessor do follows a sequence which is Fetch, Decode, and then Execute.

The microprocessor fetches instructions from the memory, then decodes it and executes it, then it sends the result  to the output unit.

Some terminology used in a Microprocessor

Instruction Set : It is the set of instructions that the microprocessor fetches and execute.

Bandwidth : It is the amount of bits(data) processed in a single instruction in a fixed amount of time.

Clock Speed : It is the number of operations per second .It is also known as Clock Rate. It is expressed in megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz).

Features of a Microprocessor

Cost-effective: The microprocessor chips are available at low prices .

Size: It is of small size chip.

Low Power Consumption: Microprocessors use metal-oxide semiconductor technology, which is low power consumption.

Reliability: It is reliable as the failure rate of microprocessor chips is very low.

A microprocessor can be classified into three categories:

microprocessor

RISC Processor
RISC stands for Reduced Instruction Set Computer. RISC Processor has a limited number of instructions, because of simple and small instruction it execute it very fastly .

CISC Processor
CISC stands for Complex Instruction Set Computer. CISC processor can perform multi-step operations. It contains large number of complex instructions.

Special Processors
Now some special purpose processor is as follow,

Coprocessor
A coprocessor is a processor which works side-by-side with the main processor , its used to supplement the processing power of a microprocessor many times its faster than the ordinary microprocessor.
Example : Math coprocessor performs mathematical computations.

Input/Output Processor
This microprocessor have a local memory of its own, which is used to handle only input output processes for a computer.
Example :
Keyboard/mouse controller
DMA (direct Memory Access) controller

Transputer (Transistor Computer)

A transputer is a first general purpose microprocessor which used in parallel computing systems.Its name is a concatenation of transistor and computer.

DSP (Digital Signal Processor)
This processor  process the analog signals into a digital form.  Analog to Digital Converters (ADC) and Digital to Analog Converters (DAC) are essential components of DSP.

The following table shows the features of the various Intel processors.

Processor

Speed (MHz)

Heat Sink

Cooling Fan

Cache

Sockets

Pins

8088

5-8

No

No

No

DIP

40

80286

6
10
12

No

No

No

LLC
PGA
PLCC

68

80386SX

16 – 33

No

No

No

PGA

100

80386DX

16 – 33

No

No

No

PGA

100

80486SX

16 – 33

No

Yes on 33 MHz

0-256K

PGA

100

80486DX

25 – 50

No

Yes on 33 MHz

0-256k

PGA
SQFP

168
208

Pentium

60-166

Yes

Yes

256-512k

PGA

296

Pentium Pro

233-266

Yes

Yes

256k-1mb

PGA

387

Pentium II

233-500

Yes

Yes

512k

SEC

242

Pentium III

450mhz-1.13ghz

Yes

Yes

256-512k

SEC/PGA

242/370

Bus Sizes of CPU’s

Processor

Register

Data Bus

Address Bus

8088

16-bit

8-bit

20-bit

80286

16-bit

16-bit

24-bit

80386SX

16-bit

16-bit

24-bit

80386DX

32-bit

32-bit

32-bit

80486SX

32-bit

32-bit

32-bit

80486DX

32-bit

32-bit

32-bit

Pentium

64-bit

64-bit

32-bit

Pentium Pro

64-bit

64-bit

36 bit

Pentium II

64-bit

64-bit

36 bit

Pentium III

64-bit

64-bit

36 bit

 The table below outlines the various socket/slot types and the processors that they support.

Socket

Pins

Processor

Socket 4

237 PGA

Pentium 60/66, Pentium Overdrive

Socket 5

320 SPGA

Pentium 75-133, Pentium Overdrive

Socket 7

321 SPGA

Pentium 75-200, Pentium Overdrive

Socket 8

387 SPGA

Pentium Pro

Slot 1

242 SEC/SEPP

Pentium II, Pentium III, Celeron

Slot 2

330 SECC-2

Xeon

Super Socket 7

321 SPGA

Pentium MMX, Pentium Pro, AMD K6-2, K6-2+, K6-3, K6-3+

Socket 370

370 SPGA

Celeron, Pentium III, Cyrix III

Socket A

462 SPGA

AMD Athlon, Duron

Slot A

242 Slot A

AMD Athlon



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